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Learn about cannabis

What is Cannabis?

Cannabis is the term commonly used for the plant or flower of the Cannabaceae family. It’s been consumed by humans for longer than we’ve written stuff down.

Sativa and Indica

There are two main types of cannabis for human use: Sativa and Indica. Each has a different shape, size, leaf and effect. Crossed with each other, they make hybrids. Indica is generally considered to provide a calming and relaxing effect. Sativa can have more energizing, uplifting and cerebral effects.


And those hybrids? Somewhere between the two, with a dominant effect from one of the two parent plants.


The active compounds in cannabis are cannabinoids. Cannabis has more than 100 of them, of which THC and CBD are the most common.


Ever noticed the distinct smell of cannabis? You can thank terpenes for that. They’re volatile aromatic compounds in the essential oil of plants, including cannabis.


Terpenes and cannabinoids like THC and CBD are both contained in trichomes, tiny and sticky hairs on the cannabis flower.


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Oh, Mother! The Science of Mother Plants


The room is quiet, aside from a gentle hum of low voices and whirring fans.

Daylight streams through the overhead domed glass roof, dappling light across the mothers. The atmosphere is peaceful, almost sleepy.

Inside the large room on one side of the HEXO greenhouse known as B2, all is well. In some areas, younger mother plants reach towards the light. In others, several shrubs are so towering, bushy and vigorous, a visitor could be forgiven for thinking they were tropical trees.

This is, after all, the mother room at HEXO, a sunny corner dedicated to starting the process of cultivating clones from cuttings. And it is where generation after generation of new cannabis plants get their start in life, before moving to even more climate-controlled facilities elsewhere on campus.

Although the average mother plant’s life is only six months, they do a lot of living in that time, partly because they get 18 hours of light, and partly because of the intensive care and attention they receive during their lives, says master grower, Agnes Kwasniewska.

“They grow really fast. It’s a big jungle in there. The bigger they get, the more work they are for us, as well,” she says.

Cannabis mother plants are grown for their cuttings, in preference to using seeds, to maintain genetic and cannabinoid consistency across specific strains and hybrids. Once clones are harvested from a mother plant’s healthiest branches, they are placed in rooting medium for seven to ten days.

The cuttings can grow into either relatively small plants or towering bushes, depending on their age and strain. Indica plants grow more slowly than sativa; a one-month-old sativa plant produces the same number of cuttings as a two-month-old indica mother.

According to Agnes, the company’s continuous harvesting process means that cuttings are taken at regular intervals from mother plants, until they reach about six months.

“Because the mothers are constantly evaluated for their health and vigour, we are able to tell when they reach the end of their lives, so we take new clones of her and make them into mothers,” she notes. “It’s the continuity that’s the secret to maintaining uniform quality across our entire production process.”